List Of Earthquakes By Magnitude | Year | Location

List Of Earthquakes

Earthquakes are any sudden shaking of the ground caused by the passage of seismic waves through Earth’s rocks. Seismic waves are produced when some form of energy stored in Earth’s crust is suddenly released, usually when masses of rock straining against one another suddenly fracture and “slip.” Earthquakes occur most often along geologic faults, narrow zones where rock masses move about one another. The major fault lines of the world are located at the fringes of the huge tectonic plates that make up Earth’s crust.

Deadliest earthquakes by year

Deadliest earthquakes by year — By Year, Magnitude, Location, Depth, MMI, Notes, Event, Date.

List Of Earthquakes

20007.9 Indonesia, Enggano Island offshore44.0VIThis earthquake killed at least 103 people and injured 2,585 others.2000 Enggano earthquakeJune 4
20017.7 India, Bhuj16.0X20,085 people were killed, 166,800 people were injured and over a million buildings damaged or destroyed, this was the 3rd largest earthquake in India since 1900.2001 Gujarat earthquakeJanuary 26
20027.4 & 6.1 Afghanistan, Baghlan Province8.0VII1,166 people were killed and 200 people were injured. A 45 meter wide fissure opened in Xiker Reservoir in Xinjiang, China.2002 Hindu Kush earthquakesMarch 3-25
20036.6 Iran, Bam10.0IX26,271 people were killed and 30,000 people were injured. The city of Bam was catastrophically impacted with many buildings, including the Bam Citadel completely destroyed.2003 Bam earthquakeDecember 26
20049.1 Indonesia, Sumatra offshore30.0IXThis is the third largest earthquake in the world since 1900 and is the largest since the 1964 Alaska earthquake. In total, at least 227,898 people were killed, many more injured and 1,126,900 were displaced by the earthquake and subsequent tsunami in 14 countries in South Asia and East Africa.2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
20057.6 Pakistan, Balakot15.0XIAt least 87,351 people killed, more than 138,000 injured and extensive damage in Pakistan and India. The heaviest damage occurred in the Muzaffarabad area, Pakistan where entire villages were destroyed. In addition, approximately 250,000 farm animals died due to the collapse of stone barns, and more than 500,000 large animals required immediate shelter from the harsh winter.2005 Kashmir earthquakeOctober 8
20066.4 Indonesia, Yogyakarta10.0IXAt least 28,903 people were killed, 137,883 were injured and as many as 779,287 people were displaced in the Bantul-Yogyakarta area. More than 127,000 houses were destroyed and an additional 451,000 were damaged in the area, with the total loss estimated at approximately 3.1 billion U.S. dollars.2006 Yogyakarta earthquakeMay 27
20078.0 Peru, Ica offshore39.0IXAt least 519 people killed, 1,090 injured and more than 39,700 buildings damaged or destroyed.2007 Peru earthquakeAugust 15
20088.0 China, Sichuan19.0XIAt least 87,587 people killed, 374,643 injured and 18,392 missing and presumed dead. More than 45.5 million people in 10 provinces and regions were affected. At least 15 million people were evacuated from their homes and more than 5 million were left homeless. An estimated 5.36 million buildings collapsed and more than 21 million buildings were damaged. The total economic loss was estimated at 86 billion US dollars.2008 Sichuan earthquakeMay 12
20097.6 Indonesia, Padang offshore90.0VIIAt least 1,115 people killed, 2,181 injured, 181,665 buildings destroyed or damaged and about 451,000 people displaced in Padang. Damage estimated at 2.3 billion U.S. dollars.2009 Sumatra earthquakeSeptember 30
20107.0 Haiti, Léogâne13.0XThe earthquake killed between 92,000 and 316,000 people, and injured 300,000. With 1.3 million displaced, 97,294 houses were destroyed and 188,383 were damaged in the Port-au-Prince area and in much of southern Haiti.2010 Haiti earthquakeJanuary 12
20119.1 Japan, Sendai offshore29.0IXAt least 19,747 people killed, 2,556 missing, 6,242 injured, 130,927 displaced and at least 332,395 buildings, 2,126 roads, 56 bridges and 26 railways destroyed or damaged by the earthquake and tsunami along the entire east coast of Honshu from Chiba to Aomori.2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunamiMarch 11
20126.4 Iran, East Azerbaijan9.0VIIIAt least 306 people killed, 3,037 injured, 4 villages destroyed and 60 heavily damaged in the epicentral area2012 East Azerbaijan earthquakesAugust 11
20137.7 Pakistan, Balochistan15.0IXAt least 825 people killed, 700 people were injured and 21,000 houses destroyed or damaged in Balochistan2013 Balochistan earthquakesSeptember 24
20146.2 China, Ludian County10.0VIIIAt least 729 people killed, 3,143 injured and 42,000 houses damaged or destroyed.2014 Ludian earthquakeAugust 3
20157.8   Nepal, Gorkha District8.2VIIIAt least 9,182 people killed, 25,482 injured, and 769,817 houses damaged or destroyed in Nepal in this earthquake and the M 7.3 aftershock on May 12.April 2015 Nepal earthquakeApril 25
20167.8 Ecuador, Esmeraldas20.6VIIIAt least 676 people killed, 27,732 injured and 7,000 buildings damaged or destroyed including most of the town of Pedernales and its surrounding urban areas.2016 Ecuador earthquakeApril 16
20177.3 Iran-Iraq border Region19.0IXAt least 630 people killed, more than 8,100 injured, 70,000 displaced, 12,000 buildings destroyed and 15,000 buildings damaged.2017 Iran-Iraq earthquakeNovember 12
20187.5 Indonesia, Palu20.0XAt least 4,340 people killed, 10,679 and 1.5 million people displaced. most of the casualties and damage were caused by a tsunami up to 7 m (23 ft) in Donggala. There are unconfirmed reports that a tsunami up to 15 m (50 ft) was observed in Sigi Regency.2018 Sulawesi earthquake and tsunamiSeptember 28
20196.4 Albania, Durrës10.0VIIIAt least 51 people killed, 3,000 people injured and many buildings damaged or destroyed.2019 Albania earthquakeNovember 26
20207.0 Greece, Aegean Sea21.0VIIIAt least 119 people killed, 1,096 people were injured and a 6 meter (20 ft) high tsunami. Most of the casualties and damage occurred in Turkey2020 Aegean Sea earthquakeOctober 30
20217.2 Haiti, Nippes10.0IXAt least 2,248 people killed, 12,763 people were injured and 136,800 buildings destroyed in Les Cayes2021 Nippes earthquakeAugust 14
Deadliest Earthquakes

Largest earthquakes by year

Largest earthquakes by year — By Year, Magnitude, Location, Depth, MMI, Notes, Deaths, Injuries, Event, Date.

List Of Earthquakes

19508.6 Assam-Tibet Border Region15.0XI4,80001950 Assam-Tibet earthquakeAugust 15
19517.8 Taiwan, East Rift Valley30.0VIIThis was the strongest earthquake in a sequence of events.851,2001951 East Rift Valley earthquakesNovember 24
19529.0 Russia, Kamchatka21.6XIThe death toll from this earthquake and resulting tsunami may be as high as 17,000.2,33601952 Severo-Kurilsk earthquakeNovember 4
19537.9 Japan, Yokohama25.0V10November 25
19547.8 Spain, Andalusia626.2IV00March 29
19557.5 New Zealand, Kermadec Islands15.0I00February 27
19567.7 Greece, Dodecanese Islands20.0IXThe earthquake triggered a 30 m (98 ft) high tsunami.5601956 Amorgos earthquakeJuly 9
19578.6 United States, Aleutian Islands, Alaska25.0VIIIA 10 meter high tsunami led to most of the damage.201957 Andreanof Islands earthquakeMarch 9
19588.3 Russia, Kuril Islands35.0IX051November 6
19597.9 Russia, Kamchatka55.0VIIIA tsunami up to 2 m (6 ft 7 in) high occurred in the Aleutian Islands.1131959 Kamchatka earthquakeMay 4
19609.5 Chile, Valdivia25.0XIIThis is the most powerful earthquake recorded since 1900. A tsunami up to 25 m (82 ft) high occurred.6,00011,0001960 Valdivia earthquakeMay 22
19617.6 Peru, Madre de Dios Region612.2IV00August 19
19627.5 Fiji, Offshore390.0I00May 21
19638.5 Russia, Kuril Islands35.0IX001963 Kuril Islands earthquakeOctober 13
19649.2 Alaska, Prince William Sound25.0XIMost of the deaths were caused by a tsunami, which was the largest earthquake-produced tsunami ever recorded at a height of 67.0 m (219.8 ft). This is the second most powerful earthquake in modern times and the most powerful in North America.13101964 Alaska earthquakeMarch 28
19658.7 Alaska, Aleutian Islands30.3XA tsunami up to 10.7 m (35 ft) occurred, but caused little damage. This is the second most powerful earthquake in Alaska and the United States as a whole.001965 Rat Islands earthquakeFebruary 4
19668.1 Peru, Arequipa38.0IXA 3.4 m (11 ft) high tsunami occurred.1253,0001966 Peru earthquake
19677.4 Turkey, Sakarya Province30.0X8601967 Mudurnu earthquakeJuly 22
19688.3 Japan, Hokkaidō26.0VIIIA majority of the casualties were from a 6 m (20 ft) high tsunami.523301968 Tokachi earthquakeMay 16
19698.2 Russia, Kuril Islands30.0VIII00August 11
19708.0 Colombia, Amazonas Department644.8IVThis was one of the most powerful deep-focus earthquakes ever recorded.141970 Colombia earthquakeJuly 31
19718.1 Papua New Guinea, Kokopo37.0IXAn 8.0 event occurred 12 days earlier, so this can be considered a doublet earthquake.351971 Solomon Islands earthquakesJuly 26
19728.0 Philippines, Mindanao60.0VII00December 2
19737.8 Japan, Hokkaidō43.3VIIIA 5.98 m (19.6 ft) high tsunami occurred.0271973 Nemuro earthquakeJune 17
19748.1 Peru, Lima13.0IX782,4001974 Lima earthquakeOctober 3
19757.9 Papua New Guinea, Bougainville Island49.0VIIIA 2 m (6 ft 7 in) high tsunami destroyed a few homes.00July 20
19768.0 Philippines, Moro Gulf33.0VIIIFurther casualties were caused by a 9 m (30 ft) high tsunami.8,00010,0001976 Moro Gulf earthquakeAugust 17
19778.3 Indonesia, Bima25.0VIThe earthquake was felt as far away as Albany in Australia. A 5.8 m (19 ft) high tsunami was also triggered.1891,1001977 Sumba earthquakeAugust 19
19787.7 Japan, Miyagi44.0VIII6,757 buildings destroyed or badly damaged. The earthquake also triggered a 60 cm (2.0 ft) high tsunami.281,3251978 Miyagi earthquakeJune 12
19798.2 Ecuador, Tumaco24.0IXA tsunami up to 6 m (20 ft) high was triggered.60001979 Tumaco earthquakeDecember 12
19807.9 Solomon Islands, Santa Cruz Islands33.0VI00July 17
19817.7 Samoa, Apia25.0VIOne person drowned in a 1 m (3 ft 3 in) high tsunami.10September 1
19827.3 El Salvador, Offshore73.0VIIThis event had similarities to the January 2001 El Salvador earthquake.4301982 El Salvador earthquakeJune 19
19837.6 Papua New Guinea, New Ireland88.8VIIIn areas close to the epicentre, landslides occurred and trees were uprooted, and a 25 cm (0.82 ft) high tsunami was observed off the coast.00March 18
19847.6 Solomon Islands, Honiara18.1VIIISome landslides occurred00February 7
19858.0 Mexico, Mexico City27.9IXAt least 3,536 buildings damaged or destroyed. A 3.0 m (9.8 ft)-high tsunami was observed on the Mexican coast, although some estimates put the height at 30 m (98 ft)10,00030,0001985 Mexico City earthquakeSeptember 19
19868.0 United States, Aleutian Islands, Alaska19.0VIIMinor damage was reported in areas near the epicenter. A tsunami with heights of 10 ft (3.0 m) struck Hawaii, more than 6,400 km (4,000 mi) away.00May 7
19877.9 United States, Gulf of Alaska10.0VIMinor damage was reported in areas near the epicentre and a small tsunami was observed.00November 30
19887.7 Myanmar-China border region17.8XSome damage was also reported in Myanmar.9387,7001988 Lancang–Gengma earthquakesNovember 6
19898.0 Australia, Macquarie Island10.0V00May 23
19907.8 Philippines, Luzon24.4IX1,6213,0001990 Luzon earthquakeJuly 16
19917.7 Costa Rica, Limón10.0IXA 4 m (13 ft)-high tsunami was observed.1277591991 Limon earthquakeApril 22
19927.8 Indonesia, Sunda Islands23.5VIIIA tsunami struck with heights of 25 m (82 ft).2,50001992 Flores earthquake and tsunamiDecember 12
19937.8 Guam, Offshore59.3IX71 people were injured and a tsunami up to 2.1 m (6 ft 11 in) was observed.0711993 Guam earthquakeAugust 8
19948.3 Russia, Kuril Islands3.0IXA 3.5 m (11 ft)-high tsunami was observed.121,7421994 Kuril Islands earthquakeOctober 5
19958.0 Chile, Antofagasta30.5VII3591995 Antofagasta earthquakeJuly 30
19968.2 Indonesia, Biak11.5VIIIA 7 m (23 ft)-high tsunami occurred.1664231996 Biak earthquakeFebruary 17
19977.7 Russia, Kamchatka Peninsula23.5VIIIAn 8.2 m (27 ft)-high tsunami was observed.001997 Kamchatka earthquakeDecember 5
19988.1 Antarctica, Balleny Islands10.0VIBelieved to be the largest instrumentally recorded earthquake in this area to date.001998 Balleny Islands earthquakeMarch 25
19997.7 Taiwan, Nantou County15.5IXAt least 105,479 buildings damaged or destroyed.2,44411,3051999 Jiji earthquakeSeptember 21
20008.0 Papua New Guinea, New Ireland13.0VIIOne person killed in a landslide, another from a heart attack. Two 7.8 Mw  aftershocks occurred the following day.202000 New Ireland earthquakesNovember 16
20018.4 Peru, Arequipa33.0VIIIAt least 90 drowned in a 7 m (23 ft)-high tsunami.1452,7132001 southern Peru earthquakeJune 23
20027.9 United States, Alaska4.2IXIt is the largest earthquake in Alaska in 16 years.012002 Denali earthquakeNovember 3
20038.3 Japan, Hokkaidō23.5IXTwo missing. A 4 m (13 ft)-high tsunami observed.08492003 Tokachi earthquakeSeptember 25
20049.1–9.3 Indonesia, Sumatra10.0IXMajority of the deaths were from the associated tsunami that devastated parts of Southeast Asia and Western Africa with heights up to 51 m (167 ft) in Banda Aceh.227,898125,0002004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunamiDecember 26
20058.6 Indonesia, Simeulue21.0IXTen fatalities in Sri Lanka due to evacuations. A 3 m (9.8 ft)-high tsunami damaged an airport.1,3133002005 Nias–Simeulue earthquakeMarch 28
20068.3 Russia, Kuril Islands10.0VI1 person injured when a tsunami struck with heights of 15 m (49 ft).012006 Kuril Islands earthquakeNovember 15
20078.4 Indonesia, Sumatra34.0VIIIA 3 m (9.8 ft) tsunami observed.230September 2007 Sumatra earthquakesSeptember 12
20088.0  China, Sichuan19.0XI87,587374,1772008 Sichuan earthquakeMay 12
20098.1 Samoa, Offshore18.0VIIA tsunami up to 14 m (46 ft) struck the Samoan coast.18972009 Samoa earthquake and tsunamiSeptember 29
20108.8 Chile, Concepción22.9IXA 10 m (33 ft) tsunami struck the Chilean coast.55012,0002010 Chile earthquakeFebruary 27
20119.1 Japan, Honshu29.0IXA tsunami up to 40.5 m (133 ft) struck the Tohoku coast.19,7476,0002011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunamiMarch 11
20128.6 Indonesia, Indian Ocean20.0VIIAn 8.2 Mw  aftershock occurred a few hours later.10122012 Indian Ocean earthquakesApril 11
20138.3 Russia, Sea of Okhotsk598.1VIThe quake was felt as far away as Moscow.002013 Okhotsk Sea earthquakeMay 24
20148.2 Chile, Iquique25.0VIII692014 Iquique earthquakeApril 1
20158.3 Chile, Coquimbo22.4IX21342015 Illapel earthquakeSeptember 16
20167.9 Papua New Guinea, New Ireland94.5VII002016 Solomon Islands earthquakes#December 17 earthquakeDecember 17
20178.2 Mexico, Chiapas47.4IX982502017 Chiapas earthquakeSeptember 8
20188.2 Fiji, Offshore600.0V002018 Fiji earthquakeAugust 19
20198.0 Peru, Loreto122.6VIII202019 Peru earthquakeMay 26
20207.8 United States, Alaska Peninsula28.0VIIForeshock to the 8.2 in 2021, along with an event in October.00July 2020 Alaska Peninsula earthquakeJuly 22
20218.2 United States, Alaska Peninsula32.2VIIThis is the largest earthquake in the United States since the 1965 Rat Islands earthquake.002021 Chignik earthquakeJuly 29
Largest Earthquakes

Largest Earthquakes by magnitude

Largest earthquakes by a magnitude — By Rank, Year, Magnitude, Location, Event, Date.

List Of Earthquakes

1May 22, 1960 Valdivia, Chile1960 Valdivia earthquake9.4–9.6
2June 11, 1585 Pacific Ocean, Aleutian Islands (now Alaska, United States)1585 Aleutian Islands earthquake9.25 (est.)
3July 8, 1730 Valparaiso, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire)1730 Valparaíso earthquake9.1–9.3 (est.)
4March 27, 1964 Prince William Sound, Alaska, United States1964 Alaska earthquake9.2
5December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean, Sumatra, Indonesia2004 Indian Ocean earthquake9.1–9.3
6October 17, 1737 Kamchatka, Russia1737 Kamchatka earthquake9.0–9.3 (est.)
7November 17, 1837 Valdivia, Chile1837 Valdivia earthquake8.8–9.5 (est.)
8March 11, 2011 Pacific Ocean, Tōhoku region, Japan2011 Tōhoku earthquake9.1
9November 25, 1833 Sumatra, Indonesia (then part of the Dutch East Indies)1833 Sumatra earthquake8.8–9.2 (est.)
10May 17, 1841 Kamchatka, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union1841 Kamchatka earthquake9.0 (est.)
11November 4, 1952 Kamchatka, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union1952 Severo-Kurilsk earthquake9.0
12January 26, 1700 Pacific Ocean, US and Canada (then claimed by the Spanish Empire and the British Empire)1700 Cascadia earthquake8.7–9.2 (est.)
13April 2, 1762 Chittagong, Bangladesh (then Kingdom of Mrauk U)1762 Arakan earthquake8.8 (est.)
14November 26, 1852 Banda Islands, Indonesia (then part of the Dutch East Indies)1852 Banda Sea earthquake8.8 (est.)
15May 9, 1877 Iquique, Chile (then Peru)1877 Iquique earthquake8.7–8.9 (est.)
16January 31, 1906 Ecuador – Colombia1906 Ecuador–Colombia earthquake8.8
17February 27, 2010 Offshore Maule, Chile2010 Chile earthquake8.8
18November 1, 1755 Atlantic Ocean, Lisbon, Portugal1755 Lisbon earthquake8.5–9.0 (est.)
19August 13, 1868 Arica, Chile (then Peru)1868 Arica earthquake8.5–9.0 (est.)
20October 20, 1687 Lima, Peru (then part of the Spanish Empire)1687 Peru earthquake8.7 (est.)
21October 28, 1707 Pacific Ocean, Shikoku region, Japan1707 Hōei earthquake8.7 (est.)
22October 28, 1746 Lima, Peru (then part of the Spanish Empire)1746 Lima–Callao earthquake8.6–8.8 (est.)
23February 4, 1965 Rat Islands, Alaska, United States1965 Rat Islands earthquake8.7
24March 28, 1787 Oaxaca, Mexico (then part of the Spanish Empire)1787 New Spain earthquake8.6 (est.)
25February 2, 1816 Atlantic Ocean, Lisbon, Portugal1816 North Atlantic earthquake8.6 (est.)
26April 1, 1946 Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA1946 Aleutian Islands earthquake8.6
27August 15, 1950 Assam, India – Tibet, China1950 Assam–Tibet earthquake8.6
28March 9, 1957 Andreanof Islands, Alaska, United States1957 Andreanof Islands earthquake8.6
29March 28, 2005 Sumatra, Indonesia2005 Nias–Simeulue earthquake8.6
30April 11, 2012 Indian Ocean, Sumatra, Indonesia2012 Indian Ocean earthquakes8.6
31December 16, 1575 Valdivia, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire)1575 Valdivia earthquake8.5 (est.)
32November 24, 1604 Arica, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire)1604 Arica earthquake8.5 (est.)
33May 13, 1647 Santiago, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire)1647 Santiago earthquake8.5 (est.)
34July 25, 1668 Shandong, China1668 Shandong earthquake8.5 (est.)
35May 24, 1751 Concepción, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire)1751 Concepción earthquake8.5 (est.)
36March 31, 1761 Atlantic Ocean, Lisbon, Portugal1761 Lisbon earthquake8.5 (est.)
37April 4, 1819 Copiapó, Chile1819 Copiapó earthquake8.5 (est.)
38November 19, 1822 Valparaíso, Chile1822 Valparaíso earthquake8.5 (est.)
39February 20, 1835 Concepción, Chile1835 Concepción earthquake8.5 (est.)
40February 8, 1843 Guadeloupe region, Lesser Antilles1843 Guadeloupe earthquake8.5 (est.)
41February 16, 1861 Sumatra, Indonesia1861 Sumatra earthquake8.5 (est.)
42June 15, 1896 Pacific Ocean, Tōhoku region, Japan1896 Sanriku earthquake8.5 (est.)
43June 17, 1917 Samoa offshore1917 Samoa earthquake8.5 (est.)
44November 10, 1922 Atacama Region, Chile Catamarca Province, Argentina1922 Vallenar earthquake8.5
45February 1, 1938 Banda Sea, Indonesia (then part of the Dutch East Indies)1938 Banda Sea earthquake8.5
46October 13, 1963 Kuril Islands, Russia (USSR)1963 Kuril Islands earthquake8.5
Largest Earthquakes

List Of Earthquakes

CenturyNumber of
magnitude ≥8.5

Costliest Earthquakes

Costliest earthquakes — By Rank, Event, Location, Magnitude, Property damage

List Of Earthquakes

RankEventLocationMagnitudeProperty damage
12011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami Japan9.1$360 billion
21995 Great Hanshin earthquake Japan6.9$200 billion
32008 Sichuan earthquake Sichuan, China8.0$150 billion
42004 Chūetsu earthquake Japan6.8$28 billion
51999 İzmit earthquake Turkey7.6$20 billion
62012 Northern Italy earthquakes Italy6.1$15.8 billion
72011 Christchurch earthquake New Zealand6.3$15–40 billion
82010 Chile earthquake Chile8.8$15–30 billion
91980 Irpinia earthquake Italy6.9$15 billion
101994 Northridge earthquake Los Angeles, United States6.7$13–44 billion
111976 Tangshan earthquake Hebei, China7.8$10 billion
121999 Jiji earthquake Taiwan7.7$10 billion
13April 2015 Nepal earthquake   Nepal7.8$10 billion
141989 Loma Prieta earthquake California, United States6.9$5.6–6 billion
151923 Great Kantō earthquake Tokyo, Japan8.0$600 million
161906 San Francisco earthquake San Francisco, United States7.7 to 7.9 (est.)$400 million
Costliest Earthquakes

Deadliest Earthquakes

The following table lists the deadliest earthquakes on record according to date, location, fatalities, and magnitude. 

List Of Earthquakes

11556 Shaanxi earthquakeJanuary 23, 1556Shaanxi, China100,000 (direct toll from quake), (820,000–830,000 (highest possible estimated death toll)8.0Estimated death toll in Shaanxi, China
21976 Tangshan earthquakeJuly 28, 1976Hebei, China242,769–700,000+7.8
31920 Haiyuan earthquakeDecember 16, 1920Ningxia–Gansu, China273,4007.8Major fractures, landslides.
4526 Antioch earthquakeMay 21, 526Antioch, Byzantine Empire (modern-day Turkey)250,0007.0Procopius (II.14.6), sources based on John of Ephesus.
51139 Ganja earthquakeSeptember 30, 1139Ganja, Azerbaijan230,000–300,0007.0 MwDeath toll may have been a historical conflation with earthquakes on November 1137 in the Jazira plain and the 1138 Aleppo earthquake.
62004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunamiDecember 26, 2004Indian Ocean, Sumatra, Indonesia227,8989.1–9.3Became the deadliest tsunami on record, causing nearly 230,000 deaths from the earthquake and resulting tsunami across 14 countries.
71138 Aleppo earthquakeOctober 11, 1138Aleppo, Syria130,000–230,0007.1The figure of 230,000 dead is based on a historical conflation of this earthquake with earthquakes in November 1137 on the Jazira plain and on September 30, 1139 in the Azerbaijani city of Ganja. The first mention of a 230,000 death toll was by Ibn Taghribirdi in the fifteenth century.
82010 Haiti earthquakeJanuary 12, 2010Haiti100,000–316,000 (estimates)7.0Estimates vary from 316,000 (Haitian government) to 222,570 (UN OCHA estimate) to 158,000 (Medicine, Conflict and Survival) to between 85,000 and 46,000 (report commissioned by USAID).
91303 Hongdong earthquakeJuly 25, 1303Shanxi, China200,0008.0Taiyuan and Pingyang were leveled.
10856 Damghan earthquakeDecember 22, 856Damghan, Iran200,0007.9 
11893 Ardabil earthquakeMarch 22, 893Ardabil, Iran150,000UnknownReports probably relate to the 893 Dvin earthquake, due to misreading of the Arabic word for Dvin, ‘Dabil’ as ‘Ardabil’. This is regarded as a ‘fake earthquake’.
12533 Aleppo earthquakeNovember 29, 533Syria130,000Unknown
131908 Messina earthquakeDecember 28, 1908Messina, Italy123,0007.1The ground shook for 30 to 40 seconds around 5:20 am, and destruction occurred within a 300 km radius. 91% of structures in Messina were destroyed and ~70,000 residents died. Rescuers searched for weeks, and whole families were pulled out alive days later. A 40-foot (12 m) tsunami struck nearby coasts. Reggio Calabria on the Italian mainland also suffered heavy damage.
141948 Ashgabat earthquakeOctober 6, 1948Ashgabat, Turkmen SSR (modern-day Turkmenistan)10,000–110,0007.3 
151923 Great Kantō earthquakeSeptember 1, 1923Kantō region, Japan105,3857.9This earthquake with an epicenter beneath Izu Ōshima Island in Sagami Bay, shook the Kantō plain on the Japanese island of Honshū at 11:58 am. Shaking duration reported between 4 and 10 minutes, devastating Tokyo, Yokohama, Chiba, Kanagawa, and Shizuoka. Shaking slid the 93-ton Great Buddha statue at Kamakura almost two feet forward. Casualty estimates range from 100,000 to 142,800, the latter figure including ~40,000 missing later presumed dead.
161290 Chihli earthquakeSeptember 27, 1290Ningcheng, China100,0006.8 

Most studied earthquakes

The 50 most studied earthquakes according to the International Seismological Centre (ISC), based on a count of scientific papers (mostly in English) that discuss that earthquake. The “Event #” is linked to the ISC Event Bibliography for that event.

List Of Earthquakes

RankEvent origin timeISC Event #PapersISC codeEvent
12011-03-11 05:46:23164612821723TOHOKU20112011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami
22008-05-12 06:27:59132281211329WENCHUAN20082008 Sichuan earthquake
32004-12-26 00:58:527453151876SUMATRA20042004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami
41999-09-20 17:47:161718616685CHI-CHI19991999 Jiji earthquake
51994-01-17 12:30:54189275494NORTHRIDGE19941994 Northridge earthquake
61995-01-16 20:46:51124708472SHYOGO1995Great Hanshin earthquake
72009-04-06 01:32:4213438018460LAQUILA20092009 L’Aquila earthquake
82010-02-27 06:34:1314340585458MAULE20102010 Chile earthquake
91989-10-18 00:04:14389808440LOMAPRIETA19891989 Loma Prieta earthquake
101992-06-28 11:57:35289086402LANDERS19921992 Landers earthquake
111999-08-17 00:01:381655218384IZMIT19991999 İzmit earthquake
122015-04-25 06:11:26607208674369GORKHA2015April 2015 Nepal earthquake
132016-04-15 16:25:06610289055266KUMAMOTO20162016 Kumamoto earthquakes
141964-03-28 03:36:13869809264ALASKA19641964 Alaska earthquake
151960-05-22 19:11:20879136256CHILE19601960 Valdivia earthquake
161985-09-19 13:17:50516095244MEXICOCITY19851985 Mexico City earthquake
172010-09-03 16:35:4615155483234DARFIELD20102010 Canterbury earthquake
182001-01-26 03:16:401763683232BHUJ20012001 Gujarat earthquake
191971-02-09 14:00:40787038230SANFERNANDO19711971 San Fernando earthquake
202013-04-20 00:02:47607304721209LUSHAN20132013 Lushan earthquake
211976-07-27 19:42:53711732207TANGSHAN19761976 Tangshan earthquake
222003-09-25 19:50:077134409197TOKACHI-OKI20032003 Tokachi earthquake
231980-11-23 18:34:52635924196IRPINIA19801980 Irpinia earthquake
241976-05-06 20:00:12713583194FRIULI19761976 Friuli earthquake
252016-08-24 01:36:33611462212189AMATRICE2016August 2016 Central Italy earthquake
262011-02-21 23:51:4216168897182CHRISTCHURCH2011A2011 Christchurch earthquake
272004-09-28 17:15:247406045178PARKFIELD2004Parkfield earthquake
282005-03-28 16:09:357486110177NIAS20052005 Nias–Simeulue earthquake
292004-10-23 08:55:587421058176MID-NIIGATA20042004 Chūetsu earthquake
302016-11-13 11:02:59615035032168KAIKOURA20162016 Kaikōura earthquake
312012-05-20 02:03:53601025379165EMILIA2012A2012 Northern Italy earthquakes
321999-10-16 09:46:451643776162HECTOR-MINE19991999 Hector Mine earthquake
332001-11-14 09:26:122331800158KUNLUN20012001 Kunlun earthquake
342005-10-08 03:50:377703077150KASHMIR20052005 Kashmir earthquake
352002-11-03 22:12:416123395147DENALI20022002 Denali earthquake
361988-12-07 07:41:24417441145ARMENIA19881988 Armenian earthquake
371999-11-12 16:57:191650092145DUZCE19991999 Düzce earthquake
381923-09-01 02:58:35911526145KANTO19231923 Great Kantō earthquake
391979-10-15 23:16:57657282142IMPERIAL19791979 Imperial Valley earthquake
402003-12-26 01:56:537217667133BAM20032003 Bam earthquake
412014-04-01 23:46:47610102185131IQUIQUE20142014 Iquique earthquake
422010-01-12 21:53:1014226221127HAITI20102010 Haiti earthquake
432015-09-16 22:54:30611531714127ILLAPEL20152015 Illapel earthquake
442016-10-30 06:40:19609624987120NORCIA2016October 2016 Central Italy earthquakes
452012-05-29 07:00:04605482196120EMILIA2012B2012 Northern Italy earthquakes
461983-05-26 02:59:58577008120SEAOFJAPAN19831983 Sea of Japan earthquake
471906-04-18 13:12:2716957905120SANFRANCISCO19061906 San Francisco earthquake
481944-12-07 04:35:45899647115TONANKAI19441944 Tōnankai earthquake
492019-07-06 03:19:55616203758112RIDGECREST2019B2019 Ridgecrest earthquakes
502008-06-13 23:43:4613377361111IWATE-MIYAGI20082008 Iwate–Miyagi Nairiku earthquake

Causes of Earthquakes:

The main reasons for the earthquake are the following:

  1. Plate tectonics-
    The Earth’s Uphthal is made up of seven large and more than a dozen small plates. These plates are not stable and it keeps sliding. When these plates move from their place, the composition is produced in the Bhupatala
  2. Volcanic Eruptions-
    Volcano Ud Gar is one of the main causes of Bhookamp. Such a herpes either come with a volcano Ud Gar before the Athwa Bhookamp Ud Gar
  3. Vallan and Faulting-
    Due to geological movement, a stir is produced in the layers of the bhupatals and there are vallions and confusion. Chattans are broken by the fall and fall of the frown and the buzzing
  4. Human Causes (Anthropogenic Causes)-
    Human mines minerals and stones from the rooftop of the earth, building a reservoir on rivers and cutting forests. If this mining is sunk down, then the vibration is produced in the ground floor. Even the load of dam reservoirs deteriorates the balance of the rooftop Which leads to land pumps. Satara district (Maharashtra) Cuckoo dam reservoir load in (1967) Due to heavy necups came. Kariba Dam in Zambia, Russia’s Nurek Dam (Nourek Dam) And Merathan Dam of Unin, (1931).

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